American power structure by laying out the great chain of influence-from David Rockefeller to UN ambassador Richard Holbrooke to U.S. treasury secretary Robert Rubin to former chairman of the Fed Paul Volcker to a number of vital Republicans-that led from Wall Street to Washington and back once more. Which just served to remind Bono that he was intending to play in a really various league. Paul McGuinness, U2’s manager, had only just admonished him that it was something to lobby for the financial obligation cancellation cause at music industry occasions but quite another to pilot the issue through the American political process. With those words still clearly ringing in his ears the star looked for a faster way toward his objective.

“You know I’ve got a day job?” asked Bono, half jesting. It was completely possible that the distinctly unhip Gelb, then president of the United States’ leading foreign policy think-tank-a place that played host to many self-important investment bankers, foreign service officers, journalists, and academic wonks however no standard celebrities-had no idea why the boy was necessary.


However Bono’s effort at humor cut him no slack; Gelb leaned throughout to him and repeated in rasping tones (he had actually lost his voice that day) that any one of the names he ‘d simply shown “might basically stop this concept from getting off the ground.” And if Bono truly wished to get the United States to cancel all the financial obligations owed to it by the world’s poorest nations, not to mention get the U.S. to offer funds to cover cash owed to the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and local formulation banks, he would require the support of every one of these American dignitaries-and that was simply the start. Gelb broke the news that there was no single figure with enough clout to pull off such a complicated-and politically inert-maneuver. Developing-world debt was a diverse issue with many constituencies. For the U.S. government to orchestrate debt cancellation would need the type of unanimity seldom seen in such a partisan climate. “There is no Elvis,” Gelb lastly answered, and ushered the rock star securely out the door.
Gelb had been right: there was no Elvis and there were no faster ways. Eventually Paul Hewson, the Irish vocalist revered by millions as Bono, would travel back and forth across the Atlantic Ocean thirty times, painfully assembling a union from a few of the world’s least emotional politicians. After a year and a half of beseeching and cajoling, he organized for a lots prominent Democrats and Re-publicans in Congress and the Clinton administration to support a bundle that pledged to cancel all the financial obligations owed the United States by the world’s thirty-three poorest nations, along with cover part of exactly what they owed the World Bank and IMF. It was the conclusion of the first-and last-serious attempt by the ordinary people of the West to force political leaders to attend to the uncomfortable tradition of Third World debt.
But what was it about the financial obligation of establishing nations that motivated Bono to go to so much effort? Aren’t all countries in debt? The United States certainly is. It owes $3 trillion, around ten times what Africa owes, however Bono had not been campaigning to cancel that.
The difference is this. The United States may be the world’s most highly indebted nation, but it can afford to service its loans, in the meantime a minimum of. The world’s poorest nations, in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, cannot-because to do so they need to pay an unacceptably high rate, mainly at the expenditure of their inadequate or sick.

Botswana, where 40 percent of adults are now HIV-positive, pays more today on financial obligation maintenance than it can pay for to pay on healthcare or provision. Niger, the country with the highest rate of child death worldwide, remains to spend more on financial obligation servicing than on public health. Nations that can’t pay for to offer basic healthcare, education, or shelter to their people have to use their pathetic resources, consisting of, in a lot of cases, all their help streams, to pay back debts typically racked up by authoritarian, unelected routines long since gone. Kids in Africa die every day because their governments are spending more on financial obligation maintenance than they are on wellness or education.

The injustice of this situation made Bono mad. It made him mad too that most establishing nations had actually ended up being so indebted only because the world’s superpowers had callously used them as pawns in the days of the cold war. And that the rich countries of the world continue to provide to dictatorships and corruptness m the poor, despite the fact that it is the ordinary people living under them who bear the cost. It made him even angrier that the West continues to provide cash to the developing world under the condition that they utilize them to purchase arms or military hardware. Which to the traders on Wall Street and the vultures who hover over extremely indebted countries, financial obligation is just another item to be bought and sold, regardless of the damage their actions so typically cause.
But this still does not explain why a rock star turned political lobbyist. Bono could have kept his politicking confined to music biz occasions and still played a part.